Beginning in the year 27 BC and lasting until 180 AD, the Pax Romana (lit. “Roman Peace”) was a period of peace in the Roman Empire. Throughout this era of nearly two centuries, no other military or empirical power was victorious over the Romans. Because of this lack of aggravation by war, the people of Rome were able to concentrate more on commerce, education, literature, and the arts. They borrowed ideas from nearby provinces of Greece, Egypt, and the area that is now Turkey, which were all part of the Roman Empire at the time, having been conquered in previous wars. The Roman armies raised the standard of living and protected the empire more effectively through expansion of trade and agriculture and a transportation system of roads, tunnels, and aqueducts.